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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Review of the Literature

Barnett, M. (2005). Caring of patient with COPD: A reflective account. Nursing Standard, 19 (36), 41-46.

The author of the article explores the advantages of using a reflective account for treating the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for establishing the interpersonal contact with every patient and enhancing the effectiveness of the chosen intervention strategies by taking into account the psychological aspect. The research defines the concept and the main principles of reflective practice, relating it to the particular professional implications for the patients with COPD. Emphasizing the importance of therapeutic nurse-patient relationship, Barnett (2005) provides real life examples and statistics data for supporting the claim concerning the significant role of reflection and empathy in developing the intervention strategies for the patients with COPD.

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Chalmers, K., Gupton, A., & Katz, A. (2004). Issues and innovations in nursing practice: The description and evaluation of a longitudinal pilot study of a smoking relapse/reduction intervention for perinatal women. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45 (2), 162-171. Web.

This pilot project was aimed at developing and implementing a community-based intervention strategy for persuading women to quit smoking during pre- and postnatal periods. The research methods included a detailed literature review and the experiment itself for receiving the women’s feedback and evaluating the actual impact of smoking cessation on their condition. The core components of the described intervention strategy can be used for treatment of the patients with COPD. The main advantages of this pilot study include the focus on the community-based strategies and account of the gender specific reaction to smoking cessation.

De Torres, J., Casanova, C., & Abreu, J. (2006). Gender associated differences in determinants of quality of life in patients with COPD: A case series study. Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 4, 72-77. Web.

The researchers explored the influence of gender and the quality of life parameters upon the expression of COPD symptoms in various categories of patients. According to the results of the study, the health status as well as the associated psychological variables differed in men and women, while women had worse results in all domains. Taking into account these gender peculiarities, the researchers concluded that special attention should be put upon the quality of life determinants in women with COPD.

Hakesley-Brown, R. (2009). Brief interventions to reduce tobacco-related diseases. Nursing Standard, 23 (28), 43-47. Web.

The study examines the levels of morbidity and mortality among the UK citizens associated with tobacco-related diseases. Using the detailed literature review as the main research method, the authors consider the socioeconomic factors as the main underlying reasons for the high rates of smoking in the community. Getting to the roots of the problem, researchers offer an effective community-based smoking cessation strategy aimed at reducing the threat of tobacco-related diseases and improving the current condition of the public health domain. Summarizing the brief interventions, this article explores the core elements of an effective intervention strategy which can be implemented for preventing or treating patients with COPD.

Ilgin, D., Ozalevli, S., Arif, C., & Ucan, E. (2010). Gender effect on the use of Modified Borg and Visual Analog Scales in the evaluation of dyspnoea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 26 (1), 76-81. Web.

This study was aimed at evaluating the impact of gender parameter upon the results of tests measuring dyspnea, one of the symptoms of COPD. Fifty two patients of both sexes with heavy symptoms of COPD participated in the experiment. The results of the study have shown that the gender parameter has a significant impact upon the patient’s perception of the symptoms and their testing and need to be taken into consideration for selecting the most appropriate testing patterns and making the evaluation more effective.

Magfiret, K. (2005). Preparing nurses for the global pandemic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27 (2), 127-133. Web.

The purpose of this study is to enhance the nurses’ awareness of the main underlying causes of COPD and the most effective intervention strategies with the special emphasis upon the changes which need to be made in nursing training. Using the method of an integrative literature review, this article explores various perspectives upon the struggle against COPD for shedding light upon both positive and negative implications of various strategies and preparing nurses for situations which can occur in their professional practice. The main conclusion of the research is the importance of shifting the emphasis from individual intervention strategies to community-based preventative measures.

McCann, T., Clark, E., Rowe, K. (2005). Undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes towards smoking health promotion. Nursing & Health Sciences, 7 (3), 164-74. Web.

The study explores the significance of the nurses’ smoking status for evaluating the attitude towards participation in smoking cessation programs. Recognizing the key role played by nurses in health promotion, the authors point at the importance of nurses’ personal life style and position. The main conclusion of the study is the importance of consistency between personal and professional beliefs because this factor can have a significant impact upon the end outcome of the health promotion strategies.

Practice nurse numbers linked to better outcomes. (2010). Nursing Standard, 24 (19), 11.

This study focuses on the importance of developing nurses’ professional skills for improving the end outcomes of the intervention strategies. Providing valuable statistic data, the article covers the issues of professional training of nurses as one of the most important factors having impact upon the effectiveness of treatment and the patients’ well-being. Taking into account the complexity of symptoms and processes associated with COPD, the study concludes that nurses’ awareness and professionalism are of paramount importance for the effective treatment with this kind of tobacco-related disease. Enhancing the awareness of the medical workers on the latest achievements in the sphere is the only way for increasing the effectiveness of intervention strategies.

Puffer, S. & Rashidian, A. (2004). Practice nurses’ intentions to use clinical guidelines. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47 (5), 500-509. Web.

The study focuses on the place of clinical guidelines in the performance of the nursing staff. Acknowledging the fact that most nurses try to follow these instructions, the researchers evaluated the different levels of the nurses’ adherence to them in relation to the effectiveness of corresponding interventions. Using the method of a cross-sectional survey, this study concludes that the intentions to offer smoking cessation can vary up to 40 % in nurses depending upon their personal position and adherence to following the clinical guidelines in their professional practice.

Schaffer, S., Yoon, S., Zadezensky, I. (2009). A review of smoking cessation: Potentially risky effects on prescribed medications. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18 (11), 1533-1540. Web.

This study is aimed at establishing the links between the smoking cessation and patients’ response to particular types of medications. Pointing at the advantages of quitting smoking, the researchers emphasized the various changes in the patient’s organism. Using a method of a comprehensive literature review, this study explores the variety of physiological changes taking place in the patient’s organism after smoking cessation and requiring the appropriate modifications in the intervention strategies, including those of medication plan adjustment. The main conclusion of this research is the importance of taking into consideration the factor of smoking cessation while starting or continuing the treatment program for the patients with COPD.

Schikowski, T., Ranft, U., Sugiri, D., & Harth, V. (2010). Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women. Respiratory Research, 11, 113-123. Web.

Analyzing the consequences of the recent decline in air pollution, the researchers investigated the variety of consequences on the symptoms in patients with COPD. Using the comparative method, the study compares similar findings in various countries for making the results of the investigation more comprehensive. Exploring the link between the air pollution and the rates of COPD among the population, the researchers conclude that it may have various implications and need to be taken into consideration by nurses working with COPD patients.

Simmons, P. & Simmons, M. (2004). Informed nursing practice: The administration of oxygen to patients with COPD. MEDSURG Nursing, 13 (2), 82-86. Web.

This study uses a retrospective approach for exploring the recent shifts in nursing practice of treating the patients with COPD. Implementing the research method of a comprehensive literature review, the researchers point not only at the main advantages of the methods of oxygen administration but various implications which this type of intervention may have for the patient’s condition. It is significant that dividing theory of oxygen administration into separate components, the researchers shed light upon the positive and negative sides of each of them, emphasizing the importance of enhancing the nurses’ awareness of the complexity of the processes and developing their practical skills for close tracking of the patients’ response to the chosen intervention.

Stahl, E., Lindberg, A., & Jansson, S.A. (2005). Health-related quality of life is related to COPD disease severity. Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 3, 56-59. Web.

This study investigated the most influential factors which are significant for measuring the severity of COPD symptoms in various categories of patients. Using the method of empirical research, the researchers put the results of clinical investigation into the basis of the study. The researchers concluded that the health-related quality of life and the age parameters are the most influential factors having impact upon the severity of COPD in various categories of patients. Exploring the relationship between the health related quality of life and severity of COPD symptoms, the study enhances nurses’ awareness of one more side of processes in patients with COPD.

Warren, E. (2009). The patient with COPD. Practice Nurse, 38 (9), 17-22. Web.

The study implements the research method of a comprehensive literature review for exploring various symptoms and processes in patients with COPD. Evaluating various views upon the most effective intervention strategies, the study enables nurses to be in the know of the latest achievements in the sphere and choose the most appropriate intervention strategy in every particular case. Shedding light upon the complexity of the processes, this article emphasizes the importance of taking into consideration the variety of symptoms and responses to treatment for selecting the most effective intervention strategy for every patient with COPD.

Wu, H.S., Wu, S.C., Lin, J.G., & Lin, L.C. (2004). Issues and innovations in nursing practice: Effectiveness of acupressure in improving dyspnoea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45 (3), 252-259. Web.

This study offers an innovative method of relieving particular symptoms in patients with COPD. The methods of an empirical experiment and analysis of clinical data are used for evaluating the effectiveness of acupressure for relieving dysnopea in patients with COPD. The research findings have shown that this brief intervention strategy can have a significant positive impact upon the well-being and condition of the patients. The main conclusion of this article is an offer to use acupressure for relieving dysnopea in patients with COPD as an effective treatment method.

Incorporating Theory

COPD is caused by combination of individual and environmental factors, including those of cigarette smoking and air pollution. As it is stated by Stahl, Lindberg and Jansson (2005), the severity of this disease and its rate depends upon the health-related quality of people’s life. Taking into account the peculiarities of this disease and its preventable character, it can be stated that Havelock’s theory of change would be the most appropriate for implementing the chosen solution of shifting the emphasis from individual treatment of the patients with symptoms of COPD to community-based interventions.

The main components of Havelock’s theory of change include establishing the relationship between the phenomena, defining the problem, collecting the resources, selecting the solution, achieving acceptance and self renewal. The choice of this theory can be explained with the significance of nurses’ understanding of the problem and acceptance of the solution for the effective implementation of the project. The stages of the theory coincide with the succession of measures which need to be imposed for making the necessary changes in the curriculum and enhancing the nurses’ knowledge on the most effective intervention strategies, effectively working to support the proposed solution.

Implementation of Havelock’s theory of change will be helpful for realization of the chosen solution, supporting it with substantial theoretical basis for preventing professional mistakes which are inadmissible in the sphere of nursing. Integrating this theory into the project by dividing its implementation into separate steps will allow disseminate the necessary information and maintain change in practice.

Reference List

Barnett, M. (2005). Caring of patient with COPD: A reflective account. Nursing Standard, 19 (36), 41-46.

Chalmers, K., Gupton, A., & Katz, A. (2004). Issues and innovations in nursing practice: The description and evaluation of a longitudinal pilot study of a smoking relapse/reduction intervention for perinatal women. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45 (2), 162-171. Web.

De Torres, J., Casanova, C., & Abreu, J. (2006). Gender associated differences in determinants of quality of life in patients with COPDL: A case series study. Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 4, 72-77. Web.

Hakesley-Brown, R. (2009). Brief interventions to reduce tobacco-related diseases. Nursing Standard, 23 (28), 43-47. Web.

Ilgin, D., Ozalevli, S., Arif, C., & Ucan, E. (2010). Gender effect on the use of Modified Borg and Visual Analog Scales in the evaluation of dyspnoea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 26 (1), 76-81. Web.

Magfiret, K. (2005). Preparing nurses for the global pandemic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27 (2), 127-133. Web.

McCann, T., Clark, E., Rowe, K. (2005). Undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes towards smoking health promotion. Nursing & Health Sciences, 7 (3), 164-74. Web.

Practice nurse numbers linked to better outcomes. (2010). Nursing Standard, 24 (19), 11.

Puffer, S. & Rashidian, A. (2004). Practice nurses’ intentions to use clinical guidelines. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47 (5), 500-509. Web.

Schaffer, S., Yoon, S., Zadezensky, I. (2009). A review of smoking cessation: Potentially risky effects on prescribed medications. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18 (11), 1533-1540. Web.

Schikowski, T., Ranft, U., Sugiri, D., & Harth, V. (2010). Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women. Respiratory Research, 11, 113-123. Web.

Simmons, P. & Simmons, M. (2004). Informed nursing practice: The administration of oxygen to patients with COPD. MEDSURG Nursing, 13 (2), 82-86. Web.

Stahl, E., Lindberg, A., & Jansson, S.A. (2005). Health-related quality of life is related to COPD disease severity. Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 3, 56-59. Web.

Warren, E. (2009). The patient with COPD. Practice Nurse, 38 (9), 17-22. Web.

Wu, H.S., Wu, S.C., Lin, J.G., & Lin, L.C. (2004). Issues and innovations in nursing practice: Effectiveness of acupressure in improving dyspnoea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45 (3), 252-259. Web.