- Infectious disease prevention.
- The aim of vaccination.
- Immunization schedules.
Vaccinations play a significant role in both personal and public health. Vaccines help to prevent the spread of diseases that are infectious, harmful, and lethal. The aim of immunization is to gain immunity to potentially dangerous conditions while avoiding all of the virus’s risks. There are immunization schedules available that detail which vaccines are necessary and when they should be administered. As a knowledgeable FNP, the aim of this paper is to analyze various vaccine types in order to better inform parents about the benefits of vaccination.
Importance of vaccinations in the pediatric population
- It saves two to three million lives each year
- Key role in communicating about vaccines
- Maintaining high vaccination rates.
- Parents consider healthcare professionals the most trusted source
Medical personnel is critical in developing and communicating vaccine policies, as well as maintaining high vaccination rates. While childhood vaccination is an important public health practice, saving two to three million lives per year, many children may not receive all of the vaccines that are recommended (Kaufman et al., 2018). When it comes to vaccination, parents consider their child’s healthcare providers to be the most reliable source of knowledge. As a result, they play a vital role in assisting parents in making vaccination choices for their children.
Vaccine 1: Flu
- Best way to help protect against flu
- cause antibodies to develop
- The seasonal flu vaccine is the most common
- All adult flu vaccines are given by injection
Influenza is a potentially life-threatening illness that can result in hospitalization and even death. The best way to help protect against flu is to annually get a seasonal flu vaccine. Its advantages, including lowering the risk of flu infections, hospitalizations, and flu-related death (Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine, 2018). Around two weeks after receiving a flu vaccine, antibodies that provide immunity against infection accumulate in the body. Vaccines against the flu are extremely healthy. Both adult flu vaccines are administered by injection into the upper arm muscle.
Vaccine 2: Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine
- Protects against four different flu viruses
- Given to children from 6 months old
- cannot cause flu illness
- Standard and high dose vaccine
The quadrivalent influenza (flu) vaccine protects against four influenza viruses, including two influenza A and two influenza B viruses. Different influenza vaccines are recommended for various age groups, approved to be safe for children aged 6 months and up. Since quadrivalent vaccines contain ‘inactivated’ virus, attenuated virus, or are manufactured using recombinant methods that do not use flu virus during processing, they cannot cause flu illness (Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine, 2019). People aged 6 months and up can get the standard-dose shot, while anyone aged 65 and up can get the high-dose flu shot.
Vaccine 3: The nasal-spray flu vaccine
- directed against the same strains of the virus as the flu shot
- contains weakened live influenza viruses
- termed an attenuated vaccine
- mild symptoms can occur as a side effect
- Approved for people 2-49 years old
The nasal-spray flu vaccine protects against the same virus strains as the flu shot, but it contains weakened live influenza viruses rather than killed viruses and is distributed by nasal spray rather than injection. The vaccine is regarded as an attenuated vaccine because the vaccine viruses have been weakened to prevent them from causing serious flu symptoms (Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV] (The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine), 2019). The nasal spray flu vaccine is safe to use in stable non-pregnant people aged 2 to 49 years old. As a result of the vaccine, mild symptoms such as runny nose, headache, sore throat, and cough can occur.
Vaccine 4: Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccination
- 5-dose series at 2, 4, 6, 15–18 months, 4–6 years
- Helps develop immunity to three diseases caused by bacteria.
- Diphtheria is a respiratory disease
- Tetanus attacks the nervous system.
- Pertussis causes coughing spasms
Diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough (DTaP) vaccine help children under the age of seven develop immunity to three deadly bacteria-borne diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. It is a five-dose immunization sequence administered at 2, 4, 6, 15–18 months, and 4–6 years (Ogden et al., 2020). Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory disease that can lead to difficulty breathing, paralysis, heart failure, and death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system, resulting in muscle spasms and death. Coughing spasms caused by pertussis can lead to pneumonia, seizures, brain injury, and death.
Vaccine 5: Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination
- 2-dose series at 12–15 months, 4–6 years
- protects against 3 viral infections – measles, mumps and rubella.
- the live vaccine, which is made using weakened viruses
- one dose of MMR gives a 95% chance of protection
- The chance of a severe reaction from MMR is small
Measles, mumps, and rubella are three viral diseases that the MMR vaccine protects you from. It is a live vaccine developed from weakened versions of the viruses. The weakened vaccine viruses multiply within you after vaccination. The MMR vaccine is given to children in two doses: at 12–15 months and at 4–6 years. A single dose of MMR protects you against measles 95% of the time, and a second dose guarantees that the 5% of people who need the second vaccine receive it. Vaccines can cause minor and transient side effects, but not everybody experiences them. MMR has a very low risk of causing a serious reaction.
Vaccine 6: Polio Vaccination
- Given by a shot in the arm or leg
- Children should get four does
- Protects from poliomyelitis
- 99 out of 100 children will be fully protected after the vaccine
- Was first available in the US in 1955
Polio, which is also referred to as poliomyelitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that is caused by the poliovirus. The virus can easily spread from person to person and get to the spinal cord or brain, causing paralysis of the body. However, the virus can be prevented with medicine. Children should receive it 4 times during their life: at 2 months, 4 months, 6-18 months, and 4-6 years old. It is believed that in case children receive all the needed doses of the polio vaccine, 99 out of 100 of these children will be fully protected from the virus. Since it takes only one person to cause a polio epidemic in a specific country, the most effective way to keep the population free from this disease is to require vaccination.
Vaccine 7: Pneumococcal vaccine
- Protects against severe and possibly fatal pneumococcal infections
- Should be given to children, people over 65, and those with chronic conditions
- 2 different types of vaccine: PCV and PPV
- Encourages to produce of antibodies
- Children respond very well to the PCV vaccine
Pneumococcal or pneumonia vaccine protects the human organism from life-threatening pneumococcal infections. These infections are caused by a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumonia which can lead to such illnesses as pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. Due to the negative consequences caused by its disease, it is highly recommended that babies, adults aged more than 65, and those people with chronic health conditions receive this vaccine. Children should receive 2 doses of this vaccine at 12 weeks and 1 year. Additionally, there are two different types of this vaccine: PCV for children and PPV for adults. It is confirmed that babies respond very well to PCV, and it protects them from 13 different types of pneumococcal bacterium. At the same time, the PPV vaccine is believed to be effective in 50-70 % of times.
To summarize, vaccines are an essential part of every person’s life. They protect individuals from deadly viruses, prevent the appearance of negative consequences, and contribute to a healthy and virus-free environment in the world. There are many different vaccines for millions of diseases, and those mentioned in this paper are only a few of them. People should be educated about the importance of vaccination and follow the required procedures and activities because not doing them can cost them their own life. Therefore, the paper investigated 7 different types of vaccines to better educate the population about them.