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Iron is a transition metal

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1.  Iron is a transition metal on the periodic table with the atomic symbol of Fe. The weight is 55.845 amu. This is the average number of protons and neutrons in the atom. The atomic number is 26, which is equal to the number of protons and electrons in the element: 26. The number of neutrons in Iron is 30. This is found by taking 56-26 which is equal to 30. The state of Iron at 0 degrees Celsius is solid and the energy levels it occupies are 2,8,14,2. The melting point of iron is 1,538 degrees Celsius and the boiling point is 2,861 degrees Celsius. Iron tends to rust in damp air, but not in dry air. It also dissolves readily in dilute acids. I is lustrous, malleable, ductile, and silver-grey in color. A fun fact is that iron is the 10th most abundant element in the universe! It is also found in a major amount at the core of earth in molten form. 

        Iron is a very important element to society. Iron is a necessary mineral to the body that aids in growth in development. It also produces hemoglobin and myoglobin which are used to carry oxygen to the body and provide oxygen to the bodies muscles. It also helps to produce some hormones. It may surprise some that they are frequently eating metal (sounds gross), however iron is in an abundance of foods without you even realizing it! Its included in foods such as lean meat, seafood, poultry, cereals, breads, white beans, lentils, spinach, nuts, and certain dried fruits. Iron is also used to make alloy steels such as carbon steels. It is used to make bridges, the chains of bicycles, cutting tools, electricity pylons and rifle barrels. Cast iron is used in pipes, valves, and pumps. 


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2. Titanium (Ti), atomic number 22, is a transition metal and located in the center top left of the periodic table. Titanium is lightweight, very strong, shiny, and does not easily corrode. It’s weight is 47.867 amu. It’s atomic number is equal to the number of protons and electrons in the element which is 22. The number of neutrons in Titanium is 26. At room temperature, titanium is a solid. It’s boiling point is 1,660 °C (3,020 °F). It’s melting point is 1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F). Titanium is approximately 44% of Earth’s crust and is found in rocks, clay, sand, and soil. It is considered the 9th most abundant element on earth. 

Titanium is commercially produced by reducing titanium chloride with magnesium. “Titanium(IV) oxide is produced commercially by either the ‘sulfate process’ or the ‘chloride process’, both of which use the mineral ilmenite as a starting material” (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022). Titanium has many uses in everyday products. Titanium oxide is used in sunscreens due to its bright white pigment and great reflector of infrared radiation and ability to prevent UV light rays to touch the skin. It is used in paint, plastics, enamels, and paper. Most importantly, titanium is used in many surgical prosthetics because it connects well with bone and does not corrode. Along with other metals including aluminum, molybdenum, and iron, it becomes an alloy agent. It is used in aircrafts, spacecrafts, and missiles because it is very strong but not very dense. Furthermore, it is used in golf balls, laptops, bicycles and crutches (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022). Biologically, titanium has not been shown to have a major role. It is considered non-toxic, however, fine titanium dioxide dust is a potential carcinogen. 

Royal Society of Chemistry, (2022). Periodic table. (Links to an external site.)

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2021, October, 21). Titanium chemical element.





Part 2: Respond Back to The Comments with 2-3 sentence:


1. I enjoyed reading about the element you chose. I started researching more about it and found out how valuable it is in the metal industry. I was reading that small amounts can make a big difference in the production of alloys and steel products making them more resistant to corrosion and stronger. Furthermore, I found that Vanadium is found in 65 different minerals and is considered the fifth most abundant source on earth.



2. I learned some interesting facts while researching vanadium. It was actually discovered twice! A professor in Mexico city discovered it and sent a letter however this letter was lost in a shipwreck so it was later discovered again by a Swedish chemist. It was also named after an Old Norse goddess Vanadis. She is associated with fertility and beauty. I also thought it was cool that most of the vanadium in  the world originates from 3 countries: China, Russia, or South Africa. 




Discussion 4:

Part 1: Comment On These Posts and Ask At Least One Question:


1. The chemical reaction involved in making soda is H20 + CO2 –> H2CO3. What is interesting about this chemical reaction is that it can be reversed if placed under specific conditions. Carbonated beverages are considered acidic reactions because they contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water which forms carbonic acid, thus making the solution acidic. In soft drinks, many things are added such a fruit juices/syrups which are subject to oxidation. The more oxygen within the beverage container the quicker the oxidation process takes place. Soft drink beverages are considered exothermic because temperature changes the amount of carbonation in the product. For example, the higher the temperature the more carbonation will be present. Soft drink creation also involves high pressure in order for it to become carbonated. Due to the high pressure that is needed inside of a bottle of carbonated beverage, the reaction rate is faster. More molecules are being pushed into the air space between the solution and the bottle cap, thus creating more chances for the molecules to push together. Typically, this creates a faster reaction rate.

What is interesting about this chemical reaction is that it is reversible. As explained in our book, in a bottle of an unopened soft drink carbon dioxide molecules are pushed and tightly packed in the area above the liquid/solution. They have no way of escaping causing the strong pressure forces the carbon dioxide into the solution. Once the high pressure from an unopened bottle of a soft drink is opened, carbon dioxide is given a way to escape and thus exits the solution.

I chose this reaction because I enjoy diet coke very much (although I don’t believe it is great for my health)! I have these silly theories in my mind about where to get the best diet coke and when I say best I mean places that serve it with the most carbonation, coldest, and with the right amount of syrups. In a can, I have found only the first few sips are good and then the reverse process kicks in and it feels flat. Whereas from some restaurants have the best (FYI: in-n-out and Mcdonalds)! These recommendations on restaurants are based on my experience, but I thought it would be interesting to learn more about how soda and soft drinks are created to possibly give me a reason for why it is better from certain sources than others.

Crandall, P. , Chen, C. S., Nagy, S. , Perras, G. , Buchel, J. A., & Riha, W. (2000). Beverages, nonalcoholic. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5, 418-457. DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a04_035




2. The combustion of octane is written as 2C8H18 (l) + 25O2 (g) → 16CO2 (g) + 18H2O (g). Octane is what is found in the fuel of your car. When the reaction takes place carbon dioxide and water are produced. The oxygen in the reactant side is key as combustion cannot take place without oxygen. This is a combustion reaction and it is exothermic as heat/energy is being released. All combustion reactions are considered redox reactions. The carbon is oxidized and the oxygen is reduced. Reaction spontaneity is complicated as it deals with Gibbs energy law. Δ𝐺=Δ𝐻−𝑇Δ𝑆. It would take a high temperature to create a spontaneous reaction. In order for the reaction to occur it has to overcome the activation energy of the  reaction. The car jump starts this process by creating an electrical spark that provides the initial energy. This could also come from sources such as matches, friction, or the sun (instead of the car). According to research fuel that has a 87 octane rating will have a faster reaction and will burn more quickly than higher octane fuels. Those will be slower and burn slower. Standard car engines are optimized for 87 octane therefore would be a fast reaction. I find the combustion of octane fascinating since its a reaction that pertains to our everyday life as far as driving a car. The reaction is cool since the energy needed to overcome the activation energy prevents the gas from bursting into flames in the open atmosphere. I also found it interesting that this reaction has to do with what type of gas we put in our car. For example regular gas vs premium gas burn at a different rate dues to the differing octane rating. If you put premium in a regular car, the reaction would work too slowly for the car to work properly. (Links to an external site.)




Part 2: Respond Back to The Comment with 2-3 sentence:


1. I think it is interesting that you chose to do an acid/base reaction. I did some more research on what affects an acid/base reaction rate. Increasing the concentration of the reactants in the reaction will increase the rate of the reaction. Temperature also plays an important role. The rate will double every 10 degrees kelvin you raise the temperature. The nature of the reactants plays a role as it depends whether the reactants are in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Lastly if there is a catalyst as we learned in the chapter this will help reach equilibrium between the acid and base faster as a catalyst decreases the energy of activation of the reaction.