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Mitosis and Meiosis Mechanisms

Abstract

Cell division tends to generate daughter from a parent cell to the transfer of genetic characteristics in the form of DNA from the parent cells. Cell division happens in two different forms namely mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis involves identical daughter cells formed by replicating and dividing the original chromosomes while meiosis involves cell division via the creation of egg and sperm cells. In the mitotic division, the cell duplicates the DNA to deliver one complete copy on the opposite sides of the original. Meiosis involves germ cell divisions through nucleus fissions that produce four gametes. It’s the concept of sexual reproduction of organisms to create genetically different offspring. Cell division is regulated to control the cell cycle in several ways i.e. lack of enough supply in nutrients or if the DNA replication is incomplete.

Cell Division

In reproduction or growth, cell division is critical. The concept involves the distribution of identical genetic material DNA in different generations. Cell division is often affected by several environmental factors such as temperature and PH. Cell division happens in two different forms namely mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis involves identical daughter cells formed by replicating and dividing the original chromosomes while meiosis involves cell division via the creation of egg and sperm cells. Mitosis allows the creation of a new body and is a highly critical process for life. Cell division is essential in the body since it increases the ranks of immune cells to fight or respond to infections. Cells divide to reproduce organisms and to repair and grow multiple organisms. The paper expounds on the difference between the two processes as well as their purpose of each process in relation to life.

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Cell division tends to generate daughter from a parent cell to the transfer of genetic characteristics in the form of DNA from the parent cells. Cell division replenishes the skin by replacing the skin cells lost at the surface of the skin (Terry-Cobo, 2013). There are two forms of genetic formations that define cell division. They occur in single-celled or multicellular organisms. In addition, they serve different purposes such as repair and replacement of cells and tissues or used in sexual production (Singh-Cundy & Cain, 2012).

Mitosis Cell Division

It is a form of cell division where the cells generate two genetically identical daughter cells from a single parent in eukaryotes. In the mitotic division, the cell duplicates the DNA to deliver one complete copy on the opposite sides of the original. Its more incorporated in cell cycle than interphase. Mitosis involves several phases based on the physical state of the chromosomes and the spindle fibers (Singh-Cundy & Cain, 2012). However, it has two broad categories namely the progressive phase and the regressive phase. In the phase, the chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the center of the spindle while the regressive phase is when the chromatids separate (Nikolaev, Zubairova, Fadeev, Mjolsness & Kolchanov, 2011).

Mitosis involves five steps that are based on the physical state of the chromosomes and spindle. The mitosis process involves several steps that encourage cell division (Gupta, 2005). Finally, the process category has Cytokinesis process. In the prophase section, chromatin in the nucleus condenses and is visible in the light microscope as chromosomes. The mitotic spindle is also formed in the phase by some fibers that cross the cell. In the prometaphase section, there is the dissolving of the nuclear membrane as proteins attach to the centrometers to develop kinetochores (Figueroa & Bass, 2010). On the other hand, metaphase involves the alignment of the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus. Anaphase involves pairing of the chromosomes as they move in the opposite direction. Anaphase forms the kinetochore movement. Partitioning of the cell also begins in this stage. Lastly, there is the Cytokinesis phase where a fiber ring forms dividing cells into two daughter cells (Cooper & Strich, 2011).

Meiosis Cell Division

It’s a form of cell division that is necessary for sexual reproduction. Meiosis generates daughter cells that mature into eggs in the female body of animals. Meiosis involves germ cell divisions through nucleus fissions that produce four gametes. The concept is concerned with sexual reproduction of organisms to create genetically different offspring (Modell, Kambara, Perchuk & Laub, 2014). It reduces the chromosomes number by half in order to allow sexual recombination to occur. In meiosis, there are two divisions i.e. meiosis 1 which is the reduction and Meiosis II that forms separation. The process produces 4 haploid cells. Meiosis also has several phases that define the cell division in organisms (Gupta, 2005).

Mitosis and Meiosis Table (Comparison)

Mitosis Meiosis
It involves asexual reproduction or used by single-celled organisms to reproduce. It uses sexual reproduction
The process also occurs in all organisms Meiosis is only available in plants, fungi, and humans
Identical cells are produced during the mitosis cell division It develops genetically different cells from the same organism through the fissions of the nucleus producing four sex cells.
It encourages the repair of the body through the cellular reproduction It involves genetic diversity by sexual reproduction
It maintains the ploidy level and its common in all cells. Has less ploidy level is common in relatively few cells of multicellular organisms i.e. chromosomes number halved in the products.

Actual Cell Division Process

In order to understand how the two types of cell division work there is a need to know what consists of the cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of two major stages i.e. cell division and interphase. The actual process of cell division involves five stages, interphase stage and the actual division of the cells also known as Cytokinesis (Roth, 2007). The first stage is prophase where chromatin coils and condenses to form chromosomes; they become visible as the nuclear membrane in the cells disappears. Secondly, the process moves where the division is characterized by a complete disappearance of the nuclear membrane. Metaphase stage involves pulling of the protein fibers on the centrometers of the chromosomes (Cooper & Strich, 2011). The spindle fibers shorten as the centromeres split making the chromatids be directed to other ways in the next stage. The telophase step results in the creation of two daughter cells from the process of Cytokinesis (Perry, Morton & Perry, 2007).Significant scientific development have been made in the cell division processes. As a result, it increases the knowledge of the genome structure as well illustrating the role of cytogenetics.

End Products and Similarities

Cell division is regulated to control the cell cycle through different checkpoints. It’s often done if the nutrient supply is inadequate or if the DNA replication is incomplete. In addition, control can also be done if the DNA is damaged. The cell division process forms the basis of life i.e. it involves how animals grow and reproduce. The process helps in reproducing unicellular organism thus encouraging new body formation. Cell division process maintains the body health by repairing the tissues in multicellular animals (Singh-Cundy & Cain, 2012). In addition, it produces identical daughter cells through the process of mitosis while in meiosis it produces four daughter cells. The two categories of cell division are similar in several ways such as they all involve DNA replication that precedes them. In addition, they are all forms of cell divisions that occur in humans and animals. Both produce new cells and pass genetic material through replication.

References

Cooper, K. F., & Strich, R. (2011). Meiotic control of the APC/C: similarities & differences from mitosis. Cell Division6, 16. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-6-16

Figueroa, D. M., & Bass, H. W. (2010). A historical and modern perspective on plant cytogenetics. Briefings in functional genomics9(2), 95-102.

Gupta, P. K. (2005). Cell and molecular biology. Meerut: Rastogi Publications.

Modell, J. W., Kambara, T. K., Perchuk, B. S., & Laub, M. T. (2014). A DNA Damage- Induced, SOS-Independent Checkpoint Regulates Cell Division in Caulobacter crescentus. Plos Biology12(10), 1-15.

Nikolaev, S. V., Zubairova, U. S., Fadeev, S. I., Mjolsness, E., & Kolchanov, N. A. (2011). Study of a one-dimensional model, accounting for cell division, of regulation of the renewing zone size in a biological tissue. Journal of Applied and Industrial Mathematics, 5(4), 601-611.

Perry, J, W, Morton, D & Perry, J, B (2007). Laboratory Manual for Non-majors Biology. California; Cengage Learning.

Roth, S. M. (2007). Genetics primer for exercise science and health. Leeds: Human Kinetics.

Singh-Cundy, A & Cain, M., (2012). Discover Biology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Norton & Company.

Terry-Cobo, S. (2013). Oklahoma medical research foundation scientists’ cell division research published in journal science. Journal Recordю