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Number of Acquired Infections in the Hospital Setting

Introduction

Studies on the reduction of acquired infections in hospital settings by using antimicrobial catheters have remained very crucial to the Centre for Disease and Control (CDC) to understand and consequently establish better frameworks for reducing bloodstream infections. This paper is a critique of the article The Influence of an Antimicrobial Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter on Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in a Hospital Environment by Rutkoff (2014). Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLASBI) in clinical settings comes out clearly as a major threat among acute care patients, a consideration that calls for the application of antimicrobial peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as a control measure (Rutkoff, 2014).

An understanding of the methodology assimilated in research is critical in developing acceptable findings at the end of the study. This provides a clear oversight and offers an intricate critique of the methodology that was assimilated by the researcher to determine how effective it was in generating the correct results for analysis, discussion, and recommendations.

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Purpose of the study

This article provides a succinct evaluation of the use of PICC in the reduction of CLASBIs in acute care hospitals. Notably, the study comes at a time when the problem of bloodstream infections is seen to be growing and requiring special focus in a bid to eliminate or reduce it. Using key preventive technologies, above benchmark practices, nursing leadership as well as best practices, such as the use of antiseptic central venous catheters, the author can reflect why the infections can be quickly reduced (Rutkoff, 2014).

Besides, the purpose of conducting any research is to come up with a better understanding of a problem and better decision-making considerations (Evans, 2011). The purpose of this study goes a long way in achieving high levels of reliability and validity. It measures every variable and the use of PICC is assessed using a different model and results further correlated to test the study hypothesis.

This article addresses how federal agencies can diminish hospital-acquired ailments. Rutkoff (2014) exemplifies that such agencies can use an antimicrobial catheter to reduce central line-related blood infections in clinical settings. To a larger extent, the article makes theoretical and practical contributions to the study through adequate illustrations and references from previous studies.

Literature review

One of the main considerations that give the article authority is its guided theoretical framework. By emphasizing that the problem of CLASBI is a major threat to patient populations in acute care hospitals, it is vital to develop effective treatment methods. A new call to reduce this problem through the use of PICC, therefore, comes out automatically as an effective method. This is backed up by recommendations from CDC’s findings that hemodialysis, burn, transplants, and other protective strategies still fail to curb the spread of CLASBIs.

Jellinek, Henderson, and Pfeiffer (2009) indicate that the effectiveness of a resource to captivate a reader is largely drawn from the ability of authors to link their claims with previous studies and findings. At every stage of this article development, there is ample support of facts from previous research and theoretical analysis. In the introduction section, resources are used to support the problem and underscore why it is a major concern in society. As one proceeds to read the article, findings from CDC and the California Department of Public Health resources among others provoke urgency of the issue and generate alternatives (Rutkoff, 2014).

The literature review is detailed and up-to-date since it contains facts and figures derived from recent studies. The author has carefully cited evidence from the most recent and peer-reviewed sources. Though the author does not include a critical review of major previous findings, the article contains a thorough review of recent studies. Facts and figures derived from previous studies identify with the current research problem thus bringing out the significance of the research topic.

Methodology

The research methodology used in a study forms a major step towards developing the necessary recommendations based on key objectives. It is essential that the methodology assimilated is developed in a manner that factors the need for accuracy and acceptability of the results. According to Evans (2011), the ability to apply the correct methodology during any research process determines the overall acceptability of the results presented at the end of a study.

The article gives the setting of the study, participants, and key variables for assessment. To make it more holistic, it extends the evaluation of the problem to control groups and different races to determine how they are affected. Most importantly, key measures used in the study include assessment of patient popularity which was done through a sociometric procedure. Besides, the primary data collection method via charts is used to ensure that the research fits within the operating programs of the clinic settings to avoid disrupting institutional operations. To increase the probability of getting the correct information, the researcher guaranteed total confidentiality to the patients. An approval by hospital administration and written permission are described as key measures in this study to protect patients’ privacy.

The author uses a quasi-experimental research method that is best suited to the target respondents. To some extent, the method of research was compatible with the purpose of the study in various ways. For instance, the researcher was able to overcome ethical issues that could have been a major hindrance while obtaining data. The presence of an experimental and control group makes it possible to obtain statistical information that could enable one to conclude the effects of proposed inthe tervention. The experimental method eradicates the use of assumptions unlike applying descriptive or inferential methods. The methodological components considered in this study include the respondents, data collection methods, independent and dependent variables (Rutkoff, 2014). From the article, one can discern that the researchers followed the method since the data collection process took 180 days whereby the experimental group of patients was subjected to receive the antimicrobial PICC. Since the researcher attended a training session on Human Subject Protection, it indicates the readiness to undertake the experimental method. Moreover, the researcher seeks informed consent from the relevant authority to undertake the pre-determined procedures. Though the article does not indicate how ethical procedures were conducted during the study, it is anticipated that integrity was maintained especially because there was a huge turnout of the participants in the study.

Sampling

The ability of any research to generate the most acceptable results is based on its ability to use a highly diverse sample that incorporates various dimensions of the research problem (Jellinek, Henderson & Pfeiffer, 2009). In this respect, the researcher sought a sample of 260 adult hospitalized patients requiring insertion of dual lumen PICC. By drawing from the sample, the researcher was able to assess various effects of the methods employed. The researcher further sought to promote the qualitative sampling paradigm by integrating age, gender, and ethnicity. Besides, the sample was highly effective as it took considered patients who were ready for catheter insertion. The author does not indicate the sampling technique used to obtain the respondents. However, the researcher might have applied random and stratified sampling methods since most of the patients were in hospital beds and their demographic factors such as gender, race, and age were considered (Rutkoff, 2014). The use of the suggested sampling techniques supports the qualitative sampling paradigm. However, the sampled population was sizeable enough to test the hypothesis hence it served appropriately for the researcher to make an informed conclusion.

Data collection and analysis

As one of the final stages before the results can be discussed, data analysis is very critical because it is used to answer the research questions, test the research hypothesis, and generate the necessary recommendations for a study (Jellinek, Henderson & Pfeiffer, 2009). Data analysis in the article assimilated a strong quantitative approach and incorporated inferential and descriptive systems. Initially, the data were summarized according to the different variables under survey in the study. From the article, practical evidence and retrospective information was used to support the discovery, description, and understanding of the research topic (Rutkoff, 2014). It is important to note that the primary and secondary methods of data collection used are not adequately explained. The article does not indicate how the human subjects were protected and the attainment method for data saturation. It is thus impossible to determine the appropriateness of the data collection strategies.

It is worth noting that observations that were recorded are considered to be representative of the entire affected population in a clinical setting. In addition, charts, and tables that summarised the findings of the study have been used. As indicated in the research design, race and age are used to generate a comparative platform for the different populations. In this article, it is assumed that the summative method was applied in the analysis of data since it is not indicated. It is therefore not advisable for the reader to follow the researcher’s stated process.

Finding Reliability/Validity/Rigor/Trustworthiness

Findings demonstrate participants’ realities particularly due to the experiments that were done. This helps the researcher to relate the current findings with what was done previously. The researcher does not demonstrate the meaningfulness of the findings to the participants.

Conclusions

In the study, generating findings was perhaps the most critical aspect since it formed the central point in developing acceptable solutions. Besides, it acted as a key factor in determining how effective the assimilated recommendations would be in addressing the problem of eliminating CLASBIs. By providing a clear outline of the procedures that were assimilated by the researcher, the findings indicated a sharp drop in infections when antimicrobial PICC was used.

Besides presenting the findings clearly, effective analysis is evident within the known phenomenon and therefore meets the purpose of the study. The conclusion brings out the importance of the findings and recommendations given. Research findings help the researcher to adequately make contextual conclusions. Recommendations for future research are clearly stated in the study findings. These include:

  1. Use of antimicrobial catheters by nurses should be followed strictly.
  2. Microbial PICC should be included in clinical settings to reduce central line-related mortality and morbidity.