The present paper revolves around a scenario involving a 23-year-old woman who is one-day post-partum after giving birth to a healthy baby girl. The paper aims to use the provided case to illuminate important elements and concepts contained in both the Maternal Role-Attainment Theory and the Parent-Child Interaction Model.
In discussing the meta-paradigm of nursing, it can be argued that both the Maternal Role-Attainment Theory and the Parent-Child Interaction Model are client-oriented by virtue of the fact that they attempt to adapt to each mother’s individual needs in the developmental and interactional processes that occur over a period of time. Additionally, both theories not only focus on the relationship between the mother, infant, and environment, but they also demonstrate how social-environmental factors are of intrinsic importance in influencing child health outcomes (Chivanon & Wacharasin, 2012; Noseff, 2014). In differences, however, the Maternal Role-Attainment Model focuses on the importance of the immediate environment in assisting the mother to bond with the child, attain proficiency and skills in common caretaking tasks, and then evolve to a position where she is able to convey joy and pleasure in her new role as a mother (Noseff, 2014). The Parent-Child Interaction Model, on the other hand, focuses on identifying the environmental factors that are of immense importance to a child’s well-being in terms of health and vitality (Chivanon & Wacharasin, 2012).
From the case study, it can be argued that some of the factors that affect maternal role identity include health conditions such as postpartum depression, lack of family and/or social support, lack of self-confidence in becoming a new mother, and inadequate interactional environmental influences. Available literature discusses these factors based on two broad spectrums – mother and child. The factors associated with the mother include empathy, self-esteem or self-concept, parenting received as a child, maturity and flexibility, pregnancy and birth experience, depression and anxiety, and role conflict or strain. The factors associated with the child include temperament, the capability to provide cues, appearance, characteristics, responsiveness, and health (Noseff, 2014).
The characteristics that might influence the parent-child relationship identified in the case include the mother’s post-partum depression status, lack of support from family and friends, loss of love from a husband who is serving in the military abroad, and lack of self-confidence and/or self-assurance on the part of the mother. Other characteristics discussed in the literature include mother effectiveness, parental age, previous experience, the child’s physical appearance, birth order, and the child’s sex and temperament (Brocklebank, Bedford, & Griffiths, 2014).
Lastly, in the provided case, the microsystem plays the role of directly affecting the maternal capabilities or maternal role identity of the patient through factors such as absentee husband (poor family functioning), stress and depression, lack of mother-father relationship, and lack of family and social support. The mesosystem may play the role of affecting the child’s development at school due to peers or the educational environment. It may also play the role of affecting the child’s health and wellbeing due to living in poor neighborhoods. Lastly, the macrosystem may play the role of triggering the post-partum depression experienced by the patient due to deeply-held cultural values about childbirth that have been transmitted to her by people from her ethnic community.
This paper has used the provided case scenario to discuss important elements and concepts contained in both the Maternal Role-Attainment Theory and the Parent-Child Interaction Model. Overall, the paper has reinforced a deep understanding of the discussed issues and how they could be applied in real-world clinical settings in maternal health nursing.
Brocklebank, R., Bedford, H., & Griffiths, L.J. (2014). Social determinants of parent-child interaction in the UK. Child: Care, Health & Development, 40, 472-480. Web.
Chivanon, N., & Wacharasin, C. (2012). Factors influencing Thai parent-child interaction in a rapidly changing industrial environment. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18, 8-17. Web.
Noseff, J. (2014). Theory usage and application paper: Maternal role attainment. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 29, 58-61. Web.