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Researching of In-vitro Fertilization Assignment

In-vitro Fertilization (IVF)

  • is a kind of assistive reproductive technology (ART)
  • IVF helps those who cannot have a child
  • involves taking a woman’s eggs and fertilizing them with sperm (Kelbach, 2016)
  • a fertilized egg is defined as an embryo
  • embryos implanted in a woman’s uterus, a surrogate, or gestational carrier

Scope of the Ethical Issue

  • Ethical concerns addressing IVF are various
  • Upper-middle-age women’s limits to allow to conduct IVF
  • Single women’s, same-sex couples’ issues concerning child’s welfare (Asplund, 2020)
  • The question of who ‘owns’ gathered gametes and embryos
  • Preimplantation genetic testing to address possible child’ diseases

Additional Ethical Concerns

  • Eggs’ storage for social reasons (risk of failure, truly informed consent)
  • Egg sharing (commercialization of organ donation)
  • Surrogacy concerning child’s genetic linkage, women’s exploitation (Asplund, 2020)
  • Market-driven IVF with the exploitation of need, equity, consent
  • Religious concerns that impact law-making and compliance

Scope of IVF related to the Nursing Profession

  • communication and education of patients about the procedure
  • medico-legal framework knowledge (informed consent, adverse events, confidentiality)
  • risk management of abnormalities, medication, pregnancy, surgery (The Fertility Hub, 2019)
  • psychological issues (counseling service)
  • nurses contribute to the guidelines’ development for clinical practice

IVF Complications that Nurses Address

  • multiple pregnancies that bring a child’s low birth weight and premature birth
  • ectopic pregnancy (eggs implanted externally to the uterus)
  • ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome that increases fluid in the abdomen, chest
  • bleeding, infections, or deterioration of bowels or bladder (The Fertility Hub, 2019)
  • stress and emotional disorders due to IVF

IVF-related Nursing Skills and Knowledge

  • understanding of embryology and genetics in patient outcomes
  • required formalized training in IVF areas
  • knowledge of how to build relationships with patients (Shaia & Muasher, 2019)
  • understanding the specifics of genetic testing, sterility
  • continuous education on the specifics of IVF

Experts’ positions on the Issue

  • highlight that IVF is used as a national policy to increase birth rates
  • concern IVF clinical, economic, social, political, and philosophical scope of considerations
  • the report needs infertility treatment (financial coverage, egg donation)
  • optimize processes of fertility treatment to achieve live births (Gonen, 2016)
  • address controversial law-related issues

Researched Topics by Experts

  • causes and evaluation of infertility
  • treatment options
  • ART methodology and enhancements (Stevenson et al., 2016)
  • clinical implications (physiological, educational, socioeconomic, psychosocial)
  • indications, advantages, and disadvantages of IVF

Current Expert’s Advancements in IVF

  • procedures of ovulation induction and triggering final oocyte maturation
  • prediction of ovarian response to stimulation enhancement
  • determining the optimal duration of co-incubation of gametes (Audibert & Glass, 2015)
  • monitoring embryo development through new time-lapse embryo monitoring
  • embryo selection enhancement for transfer

Exploration of The Future of IVF Related to Healthcare

  • Reproductive tourism, search for countries that allow IVF
  • Decreasing cost of IVF and increasing demand (Tomkins, 2020)
  • Embryos that have genes from same-sex couples
  • decreasing rates of miscarriage
  • IVF is exploited to ensure zero transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV

Advancements in Fertility Treatments in the Future

  • better embryo selection through imaging and metabolomics
  • increased embryo implantation rate
  • usage of preimplantation genetic diagnosis
  • possible germline engineering techniques (Bleicher, 2020)
  • ovarian aging control and extension to use of IVF

Technologies that Would Allow IVF to Grow

  • access-creating digital consults, tests, automated booking machines
  • better experience via personalized fertility data, telehealth, medication tracking
  • enhanced outcomes with fertility profile and informed clinical decisions (Tomkins, 2020)
  • packaged solutions with egg retrieval and implantation procedures
  • international data access to find donors and exchange medication techniques

Exploration of the Future for IVF Related to Nursing Practice

  • enhancement of knowledge and positive nurses’ attitudes towards IVF
  • training to alert doctors about patients’ responses and complications
  • inclusion of IVF practices into pre-and postgraduate nursing continuing education
  • education on the communication with single mothers and same-sex couples to handle treatment (Obioha et al., 2014)
  • new techniques for nursing management of emotional distress due to childlessness

Global Challenges and Solutions in Managing IVF

  • emphasis on innovative, safe, and cost-effective methods for IVF
  • enhanced implementation and integration of access to infertility diagnosis and treatment
  • ZERO initiative for HIV and AIDS achieved with IVF (World Health Organization, n.d.)
  • managing complications related to pre-term birth and neonatal issues
  • resolving the issue of continuous spontaneous miscarriage

References

Asplund, K. (2020) Use of in vitro fertilization—ethical issues. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 125(2), 192-199. Web.

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Audibert, C., & Glass, D. (2015). A global perspective on assisted reproductive technology fertility treatment: an 8-country fertility specialist survey. Reproductive biology and endocrinology, 13, 133. Web.

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Bleicher, A. (2020). The end of infertility is insight. University of California San Francisco. Web.

Gonen, L.D. (2016). Satisfaction with in vitro fertilization treatment: patients’ experiences and professionals’ perceptions. Fertil Res and Pract, 2(6). Web.

Kelbach, J. (2016). In vitro fertilization (IVF). Healthline. Web.

Obioha, A. Ikechebelu, J., Eleje, G. & Joe-Ikechebelu, N. (2014). Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards in-vitro fertilization: A prospective cohort study. Obstet Gynecol Cases Rev. Web.

Shaia, K. & Muasher, S. (2019). Nurses are an asset to an in vitro fertilization program, and more so if they are continually educated. Fertility and Sterility. Web.

Stevenson, E. L., Hershberger, P. E., & Bergh, P. A. (2016). Evidence-based care for couples with infertility. Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing, 45(1), 100–e2. Web.

Tomkins, C. (2020). How tech will change fertility. Forbes. Web.

The Fertility Hub. (2019). Nursing perspectives of patient management in IVF clinics. Web.

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Infertility is a global public health issue. Web.