An estimate of 22% of the new cases of HIV documented in 2014 in the United States alone was from the sector of society between ages 13 to 24 years old (Sexual risk behaviors: HIV, STD, & teen pregnancy prevention, 2016). The majority of political analysts blame the problem on the youths’ risky behavior coupled with the youths’ shallow understanding of the risks involved in unprotected sex (Ezeokoli, Ayodele, & Olaleye, 2014).
In a correlational study conducted by Ezeokoli et al. in 2014, several contributing factors were to be considered to the growing number of adolescents being diagnosed with HIV and STDs on a yearly basis. Quite considerably, it is true that knowledge, along with the proper attitude towards healthcare (r =.167*, N= 220, P <.05), can help reduce the risks of the infection being transmitted (Ezeokoli et al., 2014, p. 47).
This study is consistent with the current research and outlines problems that are rather similar to those that are reviewed by the researcher. Considering the fact that the researcher expects to prove the hypothesis that proper clinical intervention is projected to minimize the number of young people affected by STDs, this study fits perfectly into the context of the current research. Nevertheless, this study proved that knowledge of regular healthcare does not aid much in rendering significant result to motivate adolescents to seek testing and treatment (Crit-t = 1.96, Cal.t = 3.065, DF = 218, P <.05), neither did factors like gender, in terms of knowledge (t-cal =.528, t-crit = 1.960, P =.05), type of school system (Crit-t = 1.96, Cal.t = 1.096, df = 218, P <.05), or family structure (Crit-t = 1.96, Cal.t = 0.323, DF = 218, P >.05 level) and (Crit-t = 1.96, Cal.t = 0.259, DF = 218, P >.05) on both knowledge and attitude respectively (Ezeokoli et al., 2014).
Significant correlation, however, was noted in gender as far as their attitude towards regular treatment is concerned (t-cal = 2.310, t-crit = 1.960, P =.05), which significantly improves the result for testing and treatment as a proposed intervention to reduce the risk of acquiring STDs and HIV among adolescents. Overall, the study provides a multifactorial understanding of how the youth’s knowledge and attitude impact the success of testing and treatment as an initiative to reduce the growing incidence of HIV and STD among this sector of society.
In a similar study conducted in 2012, Trejos-Castillo, Treviño-Schafer, Brice, and McPherson explored how the conventional approach is a failure as far as the objective of educating and deterring the youths from investigating sexual acts is concerned. Instead, the authors proposed an intervention called “Teen Straight Talk,” which was first introduced in 2007 as a community prevention evidence-based program (Trejos-Castillo et al., 2011).
While the primary goal was simply to help significantly reduce teenage pregnancy, the health education program also aimed at informing the youth, along with their parents, on the growing issue of acquiring STDs and HIV (Trejos-Castillo et al., 2011). This research is relevant for the investigator because it presents an extensive description of the study design and methodology. The proposed intervention of allowing students to talk about their experiences and their thoughts about the sexual activity was being perceived as an active medium to understand the youth’s psyche. The researcher uses a similar approach and expects that the findings of their own study will be rather close to Trejos-Castillo et al.’s findings.
The researcher also believes that psychological factors play one of the key roles in the implementation and consequent assessment of the outcomes of the study. The information generated from the proposed intervention would then be utilized to develop a broader approach that would combat the problem of teenage pregnancy and the spread of STDs among youth. However, the study failed to satisfy the study’s general objective quantitatively. There were no correlational or any statistical pieces of evidence that would suggest the efficiency of “Teen Straight Talk” in contrast to the earlier proposed intervention known as the “Abstinence-Only Education” mentioned by the authors at the beginning of the study (Trejos-Castillo et al., 2011).
A 2013 cross-sectional survey initiated in Northern Germany focuses on the relevance of educating the youth about the different types of sexually transmitted diseases along with the risks involved in acquiring the infection. According to authors Samkange-Zeeb, Pöttgen, and Zeeb (2013), the reason why the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, chlamydia, and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is very high in the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven, in particular among the youth.
This research is consistent with the current study in terms of data collection and analysis. Samkange-Zeeb et al.’s (2013) study feature a survey intended to explicitly present the current state of affairs in the area of STDs in young people. This analysis was made primarily due to the lack of knowledge on how it is acquired and how it can be prevented. The researcher put together a table that features the main characteristics of the three studies and briefly dwells on the outcomes of those studies (Table 1).
|Ezeokoli, R. N., Ayodele, K. O., & Olaleye, Y. L. (2014)||Descriptive Research Design||N = 220; Four secondary schools||A significant correlation between student knowledge and attitude toward regular health care in testing and treatment for STD and HIV|
|Trejos-Castillo, E., Treviño-Schafer, N., Brice, L., & McPherson, K. (2011)||Empirical Data Analysis||Studies from 2008||Active discussion and social support group discussion aid in the wide understanding of youths’ thoughts and ideas regarding STD and HIV|
|Samkange-Zeeb, F., Pöttgen, S., & Zeeb, H. (2013)||Cross-sectional Survey||N = 1,148; 55% female students||68% of student respondents were at medium/high risk of acquiring HIV, while there was 19% risk for HPV and 25% risk for acquiring chlamydia|
Table 1. Overall outcomes of the studies.
The survey proved that there is a 68% higher risk involved among those who openly admitted to being sexually active as far as HIV is concerned. Nevertheless, chlamydia and HPV risks were reported lower at 195 and 25%, respectively (Samkange-Zeeb et al., 2013, p. 4). This result was because the student’s knowledge of these two infections is comparatively lower than the other types of sexually transmitted disease. In retrospect, Samkange-Zeeb et al. (2013) offered an interesting revelation that the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted disease becomes significantly higher due to the lack of awareness of the pathophysiology of the disease.
Overall, these three studies strongly favor the need to launch an aggressive campaign towards information campaign focusing on school-aged adolescents regarding the pathophysiology and the treatment plan for HIV and STDs. The current research offers an overview of the articles (Table 2). Nevertheless, knowledge without the appropriate behavior would do the program no good. Thus, the active campaign towards health education should be coupled with behavioral modification to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.
The investigator expects to utilize major features of the three reviewed studies and believes that the outcomes of the conducted research will be consistent with the reviewed studies and used interventions (Table 3). The investigator is choosing the method that involves a survey and a sample consisting of adolescents who agreed to take part in the experiment.