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The Characteristics of Human Papilloma Virus Infection

Introduction/Brief Description

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most prevalent of all sexually transmitted infections because nearly every sexually active individual gets infected at a given point in life. The infection arises in numerous forms with several having the capacity to result in health problems, for instance, genital warts and cancers (Gillison et al., 2014). The cost of HPV treatment is greatly high, which calls for interventions to address the rate of infection. Poor outcome of treatment, usually due to late detection of the infection, may fail to prevent the health problem from worsening and could lead to death.

Aim of the Project

The aim of this project is to raise awareness regarding the high rate of HPV infection and encourage early check-up and immunization amid teenagers and young adults. Increasing awareness of and vaccinations against human papilloma virus should be a public health affair that caregivers have to undertake determinedly (Seale et al., 2012). Such actions will play a fundamental role in raising awareness of the grimness and incidence of HPV infection thus lowering the rate of contagion as most people will embark on successful measures of preventing or treating the infectivity and associated health problems. As this study will emphasize, the best prevention measure against HPV is abstinence from sexual acts for teenagers and fidelity for the married. Studies at the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention ascertain that the risk of getting HPV infection is directly linked to the number of the sexual partners that a person has or the people with whom one’s spouse has had sexual relation.

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Aspect that Needs Change

Despite studies establishing the benefits of vaccination against HPV, the rates of immunization in the US and internationally are still very low regardless of the increasing levels of infection, mainly amid adolescents (Bowyer, Marlow, Hibbitts, Pollock, & Waller, 2013). The immunization aspect of the practice needs improvement through enhancing awareness campaigns with the purpose of increasing the rates of vaccination amid adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the practice ought to incorporate the enhancement of feedback, evaluation, inducements, and regular visits aimed at ascertaining the effectiveness of the awareness and vaccination. The regular visits should strive to determine the required quality improvement approaches to boost the rate of immunization.

Desired Outcome

The awareness campaigns are desired to target young adults, teenagers, parents of the teens and health professionals. When the awareness gets to the targeted individuals, it is expected to underscore the benefit of immunization against HPV and encourage health professionals to advocate immunization for patients from eleven years old. Research indicates that strong recommendations from health professionals are effective ways of enhancing immunization (Rahman, Laz, McGrath, & Berenson, 2015). Furthermore, vaccination against HPV ought to be underscored as a means of preventing cancer.

PICOT Question

  • Considering the adolescents and young adult patients that visit health facilities (P), what are the effects of education and immunization on HPV (I) compared to simply addressing usual concerns (C), as regards increasing vaccination rate (O), for two years (T)?


This study relates to my profession as a nurse practitioner through its explanations regarding the impact of HPV infection and the best prevention interventions. Through the given enlightenments, the study emphasizes the education of teenagers and parents/guardians regarding the benefits of cancer prevention through HPV immunization (Whelan et al., 2014).

Process Model

The process model, which resonates with me and that will retain my focus all through the project, is the Johns Hopkins Nursing evidence-based practice (JHNEBP) model. The JHNEBP will be crucial as it will act as a support to direct the synthesis and conversion of evidence to practice through its application of practice, education, and research for successful decision-making (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011).


Bowyer, H. L., Marlow, L. A., Hibbitts, S., Pollock, K. G., & Waller, J. (2013). Knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among young women in the first routinely vaccinated cohort in England. Vaccine31(7), 1051-1056.

Gillison, M. L., Castellsagué, X., Chaturvedi, A., Goodman, M. T., Snijders, P., Tommasino, M., & Franceschi, S. (2014). Eurogin roadmap: Comparative epidemiology of HPV infection and associated cancers of the head and neck and cervix. International Journal of Cancer134(3), 497-507.

Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (Eds.). (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia, United States: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rahman, M., Laz, T. H., McGrath, C. J., & Berenson, A. B. (2015). Provider recommendation mediates the relationship between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation and completion among 13-to 17-year-old US adolescent children. Clinical Pediatrics54(4), 371-375.

Seale, H., Trung, L., Mackie, F. E., Kennedy, S. E., Boros, C., Marshall, H., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2012). A qualitative study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among parents of immunosuppressed children. Vaccine30(49), 7027-7031.

Whelan, N. W., Steenbeek, A., Martin-Misener, R., Scott, J., Smith, B., & D’Angelo-Scott, H. (2014). Engaging parents and schools improves uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: Examining the role of the public health nurse. Vaccine32(36), 4665-4671.