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The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model


The Nadler-Tushman Congruence model for organizational behavior analysis is a strong diagnostic model as it considers the input, output, and the transformation process in an organizational system. In this case study, the US Army organization’s output factors are put under analysis based on the Nadler-Tushman Model, for identifying the importance of each component in the organizational performance.

Topic: Business Case Study

Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model is a strong diagnostic model for organizational behavior analysis in terms of inputs. The efficiency of the organization depends upon the direction and control of the organizational behavior in the most appropriate manner. The Congruence model of organizational behavior insists on the best fit of the organizational components to ensure output quality. It can be indicated by the term, congruence among the components. Inputs are the factors that contribute to the functions of the organization. According to this model, in the organizational behavior analysis, there are mainly four elements that constitute the inputs of the organization.

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Those are environment, resources, strategy, and organizational history. The environment consists of individuals, groups, and other organizations that have a potential impact on the performance of the organization. It is critical to organizational performance as it provides both opportunity and threats to the organization. Resources are the assets of the organization. The relative quality of the resources and their exploitation is highly essential for the performance of the system. It involves resources such as employees, technology, capital, information, etc. Organizational history involves the different stages of development of the organization.

Analysis of organizational behavior is based on the concept that past organizational events have a great influence on the current functions of the organization. The fourth component is a strategy that deals with the decisions of the organization. The configuration of resources for meeting the demands, exploiting the opportunities, and overcoming resources in the environment are included in the strategy. The target market, targeted performance, and output objectives are included in the strategy. (Nadler & Tushman, 1980).

Analysis of US Army organization’s key inputs


The environmental factors that affect the US Army organization are the globalization and information revolution. Globalization makes changes in the rules, regulations, and policies of the nation through changes in the international dealings of the nation. The open economic system resulting from globalization has widened the security responsibility of the nation above its military concerns. Interdependent global markets and widened communication systems through omnipresent media put pressure on national security. The information revolution has a great influence on national power due to the compression of time and distance.

To keep the national security, integration of non-military disciplines such as political, economic, and informational factors is required. Extremist movements, narcotics trafficking, and organized crime provide long-term continuous threats that cannot be eliminated through limited actions. Terrorism and other adversary activities are threatening the security of American Society. The potential for assaults on civilian, military, and economic resources has increased in the present conditions. Through the use of massive weapons, terrorists impose catastrophic challenges on the nation. Disruptive challenges rose from the opponents through the development, possession, and employment of advanced military technologies. (The strategic environment and army organization, 2005)


The resources of the US Army organization involve tangible objects such as funds, materials, facilities, and human resources and intangible resources such as time, information, and technology. Soldiers are the major resources of the US Army organization. The organization occupies highly professionalized soldiers with well-trained and well-equipped capabilities. They are considered the engine behind the Army’s capabilities.

The organizational human resource is a complex system comprising of diverse types of components. Both full-time regulars and reserve component citizen-soldiers exist in the system. Army civilians and contractors are united by a common purpose of service to the nation. There exist two components in the military system, namely, institutional army and operational army. In the first category, institutional forces developing and individual collective skills are involved. It includes schools, soldier training centers, and combat training centers. In the operational army, full-time Soldiers and Army Civilians are involved. (The strategic environment and army organization, 2005).

Financial resources required for various operations of the Army organization are mainly derived from the General Fund Enterprise Business System. Army occupies a general fund of $110 billion. (U.S army general fund enterprise business system, 2009). The United States Army Information Systems Engineering Command (USAISEC) is established with the objectives of developing system engineering and integration of information systems on behalf of the US Army. Its primary mission is “the design, engineering, integration, development, sustainment, installation, testing and acceptance of information systems.” (Pike, 2009). The human, financial and informational sources of the organization are highly efficient and effective to provide better results for the organizational performance.

Organizational history

Organizational history of the US Army consists of the processes and strategies adopted by the organization in the past years to attain the organizational mission. The organizational history analysis puts a great impact on the soldiers that it makes them proud of serving the nation. The motto of the organization was often a story about a former member or regarding a major event in history. The use of different colors, campaign and beautification streams, heraldic devices, and art works helped them to develop unity within the organization. The history of the organization has a strong base that is developed through the years.

The victories of the army were recognized from time to time and were awarded righteously. In the early wars, flags have generally used the colors of the enemy. Commanders were given the responsibility of making up such organizational programs. Many of the mistakes that happened during the world wars were avoided carefully and after the Second World War tremendous changes were brought to the organization, especially in honors functions. Now, after several reorganization activities, honors functions are said to be the center of the organizational history branch. (Center of military history: organizational history, 1999).


In the US Army the President is responsible for national security. The employment of the national power to attain the security goals is determined by the President with the assistance of the National Security Council. The unification of the strategies of all government agencies is handled by the Security Council. The national defense strategy is prepared by the Defense Department. The National Military Strategy involves the methods for realizing the National Security and National Defense strategies. (The strategic environment and army organization, 2005).

The US has redesigned its Army strategy after it collapsed with the Soviet Union by adopting a Regional Strategy. “The Regional Strategy has as its hallmark a commitment to continuing alliances, maintenance of a forward presence, and a focus on regional rather than global conflicts. It posits a need to fight two nearly simultaneous major regional contingencies (MRCs) and designs a Base Force to provide that capability.” (Kugler, n.d).

The process of designing a military strategy is particularly difficult today because of the enormous international and domestic changes underway.

Interaction of the input components towards the organizational objectives

The input components of the US Army organization consisting of environment, resources, strategy, and organizational history are coordinated together to attain the targeted output through the adequate transformation process. The environment of the organization and the organizational history are analyzed thoroughly for the formulation of an adequate and efficient strategy for the operation. The strategy formulation is highly influenced by the organizational history and its prevailing environment. The unification of the four factors of input provides better results for the operational efficiency of the organization.


Center of military history: organizational history. (1999). US Army Center of Military History. Web.

Kugler, Richard. L. (n.d.). US military strategy and force posture for the 21st century. Web.

Nadler, David. A., & Tushman, Michael. L. (1980). A model for diagnosing organizational behavior. Web.

Pike, John. (2009). Information systems engineering command (USAISEC). Global Security. Web.

The strategic environment and army organization. (2005). FM !: Department of the Army. Web.

U.S army general fund enterprise business system. (2009). Accenture. Web.

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