The case under analysis presents a situation with Ms. A, a young and generally healthy 26-year-old woman who is delivered to the emergency clinic. She became light-headed while playing golf in a tournament at a mountainous course. Her temperature was within the normal limits while her heart and respiratory rates were increased. Also, high blood pressure was recorded. The woman complains of increased shortness of breath, low energy, and a lack of enthusiasm since the golf season has started. In addition, the patient admits that the mentioned symptoms become worse during menstruation. Ms. A said she regularly took aspirin during menstruation because it improved her condition.
Explanation and Rationale
It is evident that the patient has anemia among six major types of anemia that have different natures and clinical manifestations. Having analyzed the laboratory values and patient’s current symptoms, it can be concluded that Ms. A is most likely to have Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). IDA is one of the most common types of anemia. It is a condition in which patient’s blood lacks the necessary volume of healthy red blood cells (“Iron deficiency anemia,” 2016). The disease develops when there is not enough iron in one’s body due to certain reasons. Usually, women are at a higher risk of developing IDA than men. Pregnant females, as well as those with heavy menstrual periods, are at the highest risk of developing IDA (“Iron-deficiency anemia,” 2017). In fact, in patients with IDA, iron deposits fail to produce enough red blood cells. Therefore, the patient’s laboratory values of 8 g/dl hemoglobin and 32% hematocrit are the symptoms of IDA because they are lower than the average normal rates. Another aspect of rationale for this diagnosis is the patient’s symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, irregular heartbeat, and shortness of breath, which are the common clinical manifestations of IDA.
Another symptom of IDA observed in the patient is shortness of breath as a result of physical activity, which is also a sign of IDA. Moreover, the patient’s complaints of her symptoms’ deterioration during menstruations also support the selected diagnosis because blood loss during menstruation results in an increased iron deficiency. Moreover, it is important to consider the fact that the woman has had menorrhagia dysmenorrhea for 10-12 years. Also, in addition to heavier than normal blood loss due to menorrhagia, she takes aspirin on a regular basis. It could have resulted in gastrointestinal bleeding that has not been diagnosed yet but contributes to blood loss and anemia development. Finally, the patient’s diet can be one more cause of IDA in case it lacks iron.
To summarizing, it should be mentioned that women develop IDA more frequently than men due to regular blood loss during menstruation. Also, females often do not get enough iron with food due to different diets. Thus, female patients should be more careful with disturbing symptoms and visit a doctor in case they have some manifestations of anemia. Timely diagnosing and treatment of anemia on the whole and iron deficiency anemia, in particular, is important because this condition can lead to such complications as heart problems due to irregular heartbeat. Also, it can become the cause of unwanted pregnancy outcomes such as premature births or low birth weight babies. Preventive measures include a change in the diet through the inclusion of iron-rich foods and vitamin C consumption to improve iron absorption.